Customized solution for battery cooling systems in electric and hybrid vehicles.
Balance between battery modules
Ensure the cooling flow of the batteries
Battery cooling for electric and hybrid vehicles.
The cooling system is one of the most important points that must be implemented in an electric vehicle.
It represents the way by which the correct functioning of the battery is guaranteed, and its useful life is maximized. To do this, it is necessary to decide which type of cooling is the most appropriate: it can be air cooling or liquid cooling, looking for the compromise between cost and efficiency.
Batteries represent an important part of the cost of an electric or hybrid vehicle and, therefore, the effort to improve management in this area is not surprising. In turn, the thermal control of the battery packs gains prominence, since the temperature influences the performance, safety and duration of the battery pack itself.
Any change in temperature can cause a decrease in performance and shorten battery life. Ideally, temperature variations should be minimal between battery cells. Too low a temperature can reduce energy output, while excessive heat can decrease life expectancy.
At ILPEA, in collaboration with our customers, we have developed in recent years the most advanced thermal management and cooling systems. We have a range of cooling systems for electric or hybrid vehicles, which always offer the correct temperature of the batteries. They also offer an ergonomic installation, with all the sensors and connectors that are needed in the manufacturing process of the vehicle’s cooling system.
Plastic multilayer tubes
Straight extrusion: up to 5 layers
Convoluted extrusion: up to 3 layers
Extrusion standard dimensions
External diameter (Øext): 4 – 50 mm
ILPEA is responsible for designing, calculating the best solution minimizing pressure loss, simulating the assembly, and executing the most optimal battery cooling system.
Advantages of refrigeration:
- Greater autonomy thanks to lower energy consumption
- Fast charging
- Climatic comfort
- Longer service life thanks to lower thermal stress
How does thermal management work?
Thermal management involves regulating heat flows within the vehicle. The components must operate in their respective optimum temperature range and, at the same time, generate pleasant temperatures for passengers inside the vehicle. The thermal management systems of electric vehicles are, in general, more complex than those of conventional vehicles with combustion engines. The battery should be cooled or heated depending on the respective situation. In addition, no waste heat from a combustion engine is available to heat the interior of the vehicle, which requires the use of energy-efficient measures, for example using a heat pump.
The coolant circuit and cooling circuit must be optimally coordinated to transport heat within the vehicle and provide the required temperatures. The interconnection of these two circuits changes according to heating or cooling requirements. This gives rise to several modes of operation.
The coolant circulates through a pump in the cooling circuit and transports the heat from where it is produced to where it is needed inside the vehicle.
The high specific thermal capacity allows the refrigerant to absorb a lot of heat in a very small space, which is necessary to effectively cool the battery. The coolant can also be used to distribute heat very flexibly within the vehicle. When the refrigerant absorbs heat, its temperature increases, and it must be cooled in a heat exchanger.
The refrigerant can be both liquid and gaseous. Through its evaporation (transition from liquid to gaseous) a cooling capacity is generated that facilitates cooling even below room temperature. This well-known principle of air conditioning the interior of the vehicle in summer is also used to cool the battery when the outside temperatures are very high. The heat released during condensation (transition from gaseous to liquid) can also be used to heat the interior of the vehicle in winter. The refrigerant circuit is powered by an electric air conditioning compressor that compresses the refrigerant to the required pressure, allowing evaporation and condensation at the chosen temperature levels.
Fast charging at high outdoor temperatures causes the temperature inside the battery to rise very quickly. To prevent the maximum allowable temperature from being exceeded and allow rapid heat dissipation, the battery is cooled through the cooler (heat exchanger between the cooling and coolant circuit) and the coolant circuit. This always ensures fast charging.